Most articles have links for downloadable PDFs. Check out Gemma’s Google Scholar page for more publications.


Jacob, K.M., and Reguera, G. (2021). Competitive advantage of oral streptococci for colonization of the middle ear mucosa. bioRxiv, 2021.2007.2028.454259, doi:10.1101/2021.07.28.454259. [PDF of preprint].

Clark, M.M., Paxhia, M.D., Young, J.M., Manzella, M.P., and Reguera, G. (2021). Adaptive synthesis of a rough lipopolysaccharide in Geobacter sulfurreducens for metal reduction and detoxification. Appl Environ Microbiol, Aem0096421, doi:10.1128/aem.00964-21. [PDF accepted manuscript]

Speers AM and G. Reguera (2021) Competitive advantage of oxygen-tolerant bioanodes of Geobacter sulfurreducens in bioelectrochemical systems. Biofilm 3, 100052, doi:10.1016/j.bioflm.2021.100052. [PDF]

Cologgi D.L, A.E. Otwell, A.M. Speers, J.A. Rotondo and G. Reguera (2021) Genetic analysis of electroactive biofilms. Int Microbiol, doi: 10.1007/s10123-021-00176-y. [PDF]

Lee J-Y, K.M. Jacob, K. Kashefi and G. Reguera (2021) Oral seeding and niche-adaptation of middle ear biofilms in health. Biofilm 3: 100041, doi:10.1016/j.bioflm.2020.100041. [PDF]


Dulay H, M. Tabares, K. Kashefi, and G. Reguera (2020). Cobalt resistance via detoxification and mineralization in the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. Front Microbiol 11, doi: 1110.3389/fmicb.2020.600463. (MSU Today, NSF Research News, NSF Radio) (†Equal contributors) [PDF]

Clark, M.M., and Reguera, G. (2020). Biology and biotechnology of microbial pilus nanowires. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 47, 897-907, doi:10.1007/s10295-020-02312-5. [PDF]

Campeciño J., S. Lagishetty, Z. Wawrzak,V. Sosa Alfaro, N. Lehnert, G. Reguera, J. Hu, and E. Hegg (2020) Cytochrome c nitrite reductase from the bacterium Geobacter lovleyi represents a new NrfA subclass. J Biol Chem295(33):11455-11465, doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA120.013981. Epub 2020 Jun 9. [PDF]

Abdi D.E.,J.S. Owen Jr., J.C., Brindley, A.C. Birnbaum, P.C. Wilson, F.O. Hinz, G. Reguera, J.Y. Lee, B.M. Cregg, D.R. Kort, and R.T. Fernandez (2020) Nutrient and pesticide remediation using a two-stage bioreactor-adsorptive system under two hydraulic retention times. Water Res 170: 115311, doi:10.1016/j.watres.2019.115311. [PDF]

Tabares M.D.†, R.H. Dulay† and G. Reguera (2020) Geobacter sulfurreducens. Trends Microbiol 28(4): 327-328, doi:10.1016/j.tim.2019.11.004. (Journal’s “Microbe of the month”) (†Equal contributors) [PDF with subscription]


Cosert K.M., A. Castro-Forero, R.J. Steidl, R.J. Worden and G. Reguera (2019) Bottom-up fabrication of protein nanowires via controlled self-assembly of recombinant Geobacter pilins. mBio 10, doi:10.1128/mBio.02721-19. (Editor’s pick) [PDF]

Cosert K.M. and G. Reguera (2019) Voltammetric study of conductive planar assemblies of Geobacter nanowire pilins unmasks their ability to bind and mineralize divalent cobalt. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 46, 1239-1249, doi:10.1007/s10295-019-02167-5 [PDF]

Reguera, G. and K. Kashefi (2019) The electrifying physiology of Geobacter, 30 years on. Adv Microb Physiol 74, 1-96, doi:10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.02.007. [PDF]


Reguera, G. (2018) Biological electron transport goes the extra mile. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 115(22), 5632-5634, doi:10.1073/pnas.1806580115. [PDF]

Reguera, G. (2018) Harnessing the power of microbial nanowires. (2018) Microbial Biotechnol 11(6), 979–994, doi:10.1111/1751-7915.13280. [PDF]

Reguera, G. (2018) Microbial nanowires and electroactive biofilms. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 94, fiy086, doi:10.1093/femsec/fiy086. (Editor’s choice) [PDF]


Awate, B.†, R.J. Steidl†, T. Hamlischer, and G. Reguera (2017) Stimulation of electro-fermentation in single-chamber microbial electrolysis cells driven by genetically engineered anode biofilms. J Power Sources 356:510-518, doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.02.053. [PDF]

Cosert K.M., R.J. Steidl, A. Castro-Forero, R.M. Worden, and G. Reguera (2017) Electronic characterization of Geobacter sulfurreducens pilins in self-assembled monolayers unmasks tunnelling and hopping conduction pathways. Phys Chem Chem Phys 19: 11163-11172, doi:10.1039/c7cp00885f. [PDF with subscription]

Demey L. M., C.R. Miller, M.P. Manzella, R. Spurbeck, S. Sandhu, G. Reguera, and K. Kashefi (2017) The draft genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrodictium delaneyi strain Hulk, an iron and nitrate reducer, reveals the capacity for sulfate reduction. Stand Genomic Sci 12, 47, doi:10.1186/s40793-017-0260-4. (Journal’s Featured article; one of top 3 most accessed papers in 2017). [PDF]

Corbella C., R. J. Steidl, J. Puigagut, and G. Reguera (2017) Electrochemical characterization of Geobacter lovleyi identifies limitations of microbial fuel cell performance in constructed wetlands. Int Microbiol 20: 55-64, doi:10.2436/20.1501.01.285. [PDF]


Shi L., H. Dong, G. Reguera, H. Beyenal, A. Lu, J. Liu, H.-Q. Yu and J.K. Fredrickson (2016) Extracellular electron transfer mechanisms between microorganisms and minerals. Nature Rev Microbiol 14(10):651-662, doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.93. [PDF with subscription]

Speers A.M., B.D. Schindler, J. Hwang, A. Genc, and G. Reguera (2016) Genetic identification of a PilT motor in Geobacter sulfurreducens reveals a role for pilus retraction in extracellular electron transfer. Front Microbiol 7:1578, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.01578. [PDF]

Steidl R.J., S. Lampa-Pastirk and G. Reguera (2016) Mechanistic stratification of Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms mediated by pilus nanowires. Nature Comm 7:12217, doi:10.1038/ncomms12217. [PDF]

Lampa-Pastirk, S., J. Veazey, R.J. Steidl, K. Walsh, G.T. Feliciano, S. Tessmer, and G. Reguera (2016) Thermally activated charge transport in microbial protein nanowires. Sci Rep 6:23517, doi:10.1038/srep23517. [PDF]

Abul, A., J. Zhang, R.J. Steidl, G. Reguera and X. Tan (2016) Microbial Fuel Cells: Control-oriented modeling and experimental validation. In: 2016 American Control Conference (ACC), Boston, MA, pp. 412-417. [PDF]


Feliciano G.T., R.J. Steidl and G. Reguera (2015) Structural and functional insights into the conductive pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens revealed in molecular dynamics simulations. Phys Chem Chem Phys 17:22217, , doi:10.1039/C5CP03432A. [PDF with subscription]

Manzella M.P., D.E. Holmes, J.M. Rocheleau, A. Chung, G. Reguera, and K. Kashefi (2015) The complete genome sequence and emendation of the hyperthermophilic, obligate iron-reducing archaeon “Geoglobus ahangari” strain 234T. Stand Genomic Sci 10:77, doi: 10.1186/s40793-015-0035-8. [PDF]

Reguera, G. (2015) Microbes, cables, and an electrical touch. Int Microbiol 18(3):151-7, doi: 10.2436/20.1501.01.245. [PDF]

2014 and before

D.L. Cologgi, A.M. Speers, B.A. Bullard, S.D. Kelly, and G. Reguera (2014) Enhanced uranium immobilization and reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms. Appl Env Microbiol 80(21):6638-46 [PDF]

A.M. Speers†, J.M. Young†, and G. Reguera (2014) Fermentation of glycerol into ethanol in a microbial electrolysis cell driven by a customized consortium. Env Sc Technol 48: 6350−6358 (†Equal contributors) [PDF with subscription]

Manzella M.P., G. Reguera, and K. Kashefi (2013) Extracellular electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Geoglobus ahangari via a direct contact mechanism. Appl Environ Microbiol 79(15):4694-700 (journal’s spotlight) [PDF]

Reguera G. (2013) Cables eléctricos bacterianos (Bacterial electrical cables). Scientific American (Spanish edition), vol. 439 [PDF]

Reguera G. (2012) Bacterial power cords. Nature 491(7423):201-2 [PDF with subscription]

Feliciano G.T., A.J. da Silva, G. Reguera†, and E. Artacho† (2012) Molecular and electronic structure of the peptide subunit of Geobacter sulfurreducens conductive pili from first principles. J Phys Chem A. 116(30): 8023-8030 (†Equal contributors) [PDF with subscription]

Reguera G. (2012) Electron transfer at the cell–uranium interface in Geobacter spp. Biochem Soc Trans 40(6), 1227-1232 [PDF with subscription]

Speers A.M. and G. Reguera (2012) Consolidated bioprocessing of AFEX-pretreated corn stover to ethanol and hydrogen in a microbial electrolysis cell. Environ Sci Technol 46(14):7875-81 [PDF with subscription]

Speers A.M. and G. Reguera (2012) Electron donors supporting the growth and electroactivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens anode biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol 78(2):437-444 [PDF]

Veazey J.P., G. Reguera‡ and S. H. Tessmer‡ (2012) Electronic properties of conductive pili of the metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens probed by scanning tunneling microscopy. Phys Rev E 84(6):060901 (‡ shared senior authorship) [PDF with subscription]

Young J.M., S.B. Leschine and G. Reguera (2012) Reversible control of biofilm formation by Cellulomonas spp. in response to nitrogen availability. Environ Microbiol 14(3):594-604 [PDF]

Cologgi D.L, S. Lampa-Pastirk, A.M. Speers, S. Kelly and G. Reguera (2011) Extracellular reduction of uranium via Geobacter conductive pili as a protective cellular mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(37):15248-52 (Science Editor’s Choice, Nature News, BBC Science News, etc.) [PDF]

Borole A.P., G. Reguera, B. Ringeisen. Z. Wanga, Y. Fengd, B. H. Kim (2011) Electroactive biofilms: Current status and future research needs. Energy Environ Sc 4(12): 4813-4834 [PDF with subscription]

Reguera G. (2011) When microbial conversations get physical. Trends Microbiol 9(3):105-13 [PDF]

Speers A.M, D.L. Cologgi and G. Reguera (2009) Anaerobic cell culture. Curr Protoc Microbiol Appendix 4: Appendix 4F [PDF]

For older articles, check out Gemma’s Google Scholar page.